To return to our illustration of the measuring stick of the ancient system called the Secret, we have been considering the first unit, that of FORCE. The second unit to be measured is that of the CONSCIOUSNESS which directs the force. (Later we shall take up the third unit, that of the SUBSTANCE through which CONSCIOUSNESS exerts FORCE.)
If the kahunas were right in their idea that human consciousness is composed of two separate spirits on this level, with a third or superconscious spirit acting as a guardian angel, so to speak, we have in that concept an addition to psychological knowledge which is of such importance as to be hard to estimate.
This concept must cause us to reconsider our religious theories of the human soul. If the kahunas are right in stating that we have in us a less evolved lower spirit just up from the animal kingdom, as well as a more evolved spirit which has long been up out of the animal kingdom, our ideas of salvation will also have to be remodeled. Two salvations will be required, one for each soul because they are of a different level of development. The religious concept of karma and reincarnation will also have to be revised in the same way and for the same reason—that of having to fit the theories to two unequally developed spirits, to say nothing of fitting them to the superconscious, which is the oldest and most highly evolved of men’s three selves or spirits (the aumakua or “parental spirit”).
Under this older and more workable system of psychology, we come to see ourselves in a clearer light, although we trade simplicity for the complication of triplicity of being. In religion we are accustomed to consider God a triplicity, but we have apparently lost sight of man as a similar triplicity.
This complication becomes even clearer and easier to grasp if we keep always in mind the fact that the low or animal spirit in us, the unihipili, does all the remembering for the man but has inferior powers of reason. The conscious mind spirit or uhane cannot remember for itself but can use the full power of inductive reason.
In addition to the evidential data to be found in the “death prayer,” we find other proofs.
While modern Psychical Research has identified the spirits of the deceased only under the classification of “poltergeists” and ordinary “spirits,” the information which has been gathered concerning the activities of spirits as a whole shows very plainly that there must be several grades of them, each grade having its own voltage of vital force, and its own mental abilities (or lack of certain abilities).
On the other hand, the kahunas have long since classified the several kinds of spirits. As this is quite new to us of the West, and as this classification is of great interest as well as of great importance, let me list the several ghostly spirits one may meet in the seance room:
KINDS OF GHOSTS OR SPIRITS LISTED ACCORDING TO THE KAHUNA LORE.
1. The ordinary normal spirit of one deceased. This spirit is made up of a subconscious and a conscious spirit, as in life. It thinks and remembers like any ordinary normal living man. It uses the same forces.
2. The subconscious spirit of a man, cut off from its conscious companion by some accident or illness before or after death. This spirit remembers very well indeed but is illogical, having only animal-like deductive reason. It responds to hypnotic suggestion. It is like a child and is often a playful “poltergeist” or noisy ghost. It loves to attend seances and make tables tip. It tries to answer questions, and usually gives such answers as make it appear to be a liar or worse. It loves to imitate one’s deceased relatives.
3. The conscious mind spirit of man, cut off from its companion subconscious spirit before or after physical death. This spirit cannot remember, therefore it is a nearly helpless wraith, wandering about aimlessly, sometimes making its presence known, sometimes seen psychically, but acting the part of the true “lost soul” until rescued eventually and paired off again with a subconscious spirit who can furnish it with remembering powers—often with a set of memories of a former life in which the rescued conscious spirit or uhane had no part.
4. Spirits of the superconscious order, including what may be called “nature spirits or group souls,” after the Theosophical terminology. Only vague information is given as to this class of spirits, although it is concluded that they frequently take a hand in the activities of the two lower spirits, the unihipili and uhane, helping them to do things of a spectacular nature at times.
Not until the rediscovery of the kahuna system of psychology have we had a remotely plausible and satisfying explanation of the phenomena of dual and multiple personality (or of obsessional or split-personality types of insanity).
It is exciting, therefore, to see how the old system fits in with what we know of such cases. Let me present some standard data:
Case 9: Multiple Personality
Source books: Outline of Abnormal Psychology, by William McDougall (Scribner’s, 1926); Encyclopaedia Britannica (13th Edition), Article on Multiple Personality.
The word personality as used here is one not too well defined by Psychology. Jung, who has followed Freud in his investigations of the complex, describes the word and takes us back to its Latin origin: persona, the mask worn by actors when they change from one character to another in a play. This describes the thing changed in cases of multiple personality. It is the individuality, or traits, which distinguish one human being from another.
In describing the changes of personality in a body, little distinction is made between the subconscious and conscious—these being considered by most investigators to be component parts of personality. Jung, however, leads the way in his work by making the distinction of anima (Latin for breath or soul, and corrupted in French to animal) for the subconscious, and persona for the conscious.
The correct description of the phenomenon we are now to investigate should be “multiple anima and persona” instead of “multiple personality.”
There are three points which we must watch in the following cases: (1) The appearance or disappearance of either the conscious or subconscious alone, with corresponding changes in personality; (2) The appearance or disappearance of both units combined as a pair; (3) The memories retained by the personalities as they come and go.
If the kahuna theory is correct—that the subconscious alone can remember—then by watching memory we should be able to tell which unit goes or remains.
Webster’s International Dictionary speaks of this phenomenon as an abnormal condition of “mind.” I prefer to think of it as an abnormal condition of body in which minds come and go, rather than of the various minds involved. Each mind observed is found perfectly normal while in possession of the body—unless lack of memory of its state when out of the body or asleep within it may be considered abnormalities.
The terms used in describing the elements of consciousness involved and the states of consciousness are: A personality cut off from control of the body and brain is said to be “dissociated”; the original personality in a body is the “primary” one, and those that come in to replace it are “secondary”; the personality in temporary control of the body and brain is said to be “dominant,” while those who have once appeared and have gone, or who have not yet appeared, are said to be “latent.”
In cases of “alternating personalities” two personalities only are involved in the change. If there is “reciprocal amnesia,” neither personality remembers anything the other did while in possession of the body. If there is not reciprocal amnesia, one or both may be able to remember what was done in the body during its absence. Under the influence of hypnosis, one or more of these personalities can usually be brought from the latent state and made to answer the questions of the operator. The answers are none too logical as a rule, but they tell such things as could be remembered by any subconscious mind if such memories were stored in it.
This phenomenon is not a new one. Down the ages men have changed personalities or become “possessed.” This usually refers to conditions of insanity, but not always. Our attention is now to be fixed on cases where insane personalities were not observed.
I will condense a few typical cases which McDougall discusses in the source book mentioned.
Rev. W. S. Plumer first described the following case in Harper’s Magazine in 1860: Mary Reynolds, a normal girl of eighteen, was subject to fits for a year. Then, while reading in a meadow one day, she became unconscious. She awoke blind and deaf. This affliction passed in three months. One morning she could not be awakened. Some hours later she awoke of her own accord—to all seeming a new-born baby. She could, however, repeat a few words. Learning with great rapidity, the “baby” began to grow mentally and use the adult brain. In a few weeks the primary personality came back and the secondary one disappeared. This alternation continued for years, the “baby” personality growing up in the process. Neither personality, when dominant, had any knowledge or memory of what the other had done while in possession of body and brain.
Professor Janet describes a case in which one of the alternating personalities knew the memories of the other: Félida began changing personalities at the age of thirteen. She was an hysterical child, but the secondary personality was very different. The secondary personality could remember all the memories of the primary, but the primary none of the memories of the secondary.
Dr. Morton Prince’s most famous study was the “Beauchamp Case.” At eighteen years of age a young lady began changing personalities. This changing continued for years, five personalities being identified in all—each considering itself a separate individual, and the mutual memories being a tangle.
The childhood of the girl, B, was one marked by emotional stresses and nervousness. Matured, she became a nurse, and received an emotional shock in the course of a love affair. Suddenly “all her peculiarities became exaggerated” and she became ultra-religious. The memory remained unimpaired, but there was a distinct change in characteristics. This change lasted some six years, during which time another personality named “Sally” came and showed her presence only during sleep. At night this Sally talked through the body and took it on sleep-walking excursions.
At the end of the six-year period there came another emotional shock, and a personality called B4 became dominant. This B4 could remember all the events of the life of the original B, but not those of the life of B1.
In the following year B1 and B4 alternated with reciprocal amnesia. Both remembered all that B had done, but knew nothing of the doings of each other. B1 was sickly and mild. B4 was more healthy and far more aggressive. Both were very emotional.
Dr. Prince used hypnosis on the patient. Under hypnotic influence another personality was brought to light. It conversed freely. However, this very interesting personality puzzled the investigator. He was inclined to think she was the original B restored to normal condition and much improved. She resembled both B1 and B4 to some extent, seeming to be a mixture of them and of herself. She is described as “A person of even temperament, frank and open in address—one who seemed to be natural and simple in her mode of thought and manner.” She had all the memories. B, B1 and B4 continued to alternate—B now commanding the memories of B1 and B4. During this time B1 and B4 seemed at times to partake of the “emotional characteristics” of each other—a trading back and forth.
After some years the original B became dominant and grew healthy and normal.
Sally was interesting. She could be contacted in hypnosis and questioned, although she would alternate with one of the other personalities and often upset the procedure initiated during hypnotic investigation. She considered herself a separate and distinct personality and remembered all the things she had done through or with the body at night. She said she had learned what the other personalities (except B4) were doing by reading their minds when she found their thoughts interesting. When they were reading a book which she disliked, she stopped reading their minds and amused herself with her own thoughts. She disliked B1 and often forced upon her visual hallucinations and certain motor automatisms. At times she took control of B1’s voice; often she forced B1 to do things she did not wish to do—things such as telling lies.
When Sally took over the body she could not open her eyes. One of the automatic actions she forced on the others was the rubbing of the eyes. In this way she eventually got her own eyes open and so was able to see, and to dominate the whole organism. Her first success in this came in a moment when the then dominant B1 was drowsily resting. Thereafter, Sally was able at will to displace B1 in normal as well as in hypnotized states. At such times, B1 returned with no memory of what Sally had been doing with the body. In struggles of will, Sally seemed to be able to “paralyze” the will of BI who, although seemingly dominant, was forced to obey orders much like a hypnotized subject, which resulted in Sally’s being able to play practical jokes on B1. Unravelling the knitting was a favorite joke. Neither B1 nor B4 had any memory of Sally or her periods of dominance. Sally could not read the thoughts of B4, and could not often force automatisms on her; this, she said, was because B4 had heard of her and fought against any control. At certain times when Sally became dominant she could not get the eyes of the body open; and the skin, deep tissues, and “muscular sense” were all in a condition resembling that of the body when in sleep.
Dr. Prince holds that all the various personalities using one body are “split off” parts of the one real personality. His method of treatment was that of blending two or more personalities to get a dominant third. In this he was none too successful.
Professor McDougall, in his study (our source book), decides that each personality is a separate “monad” or entity in itself.
None of the psychologists are willing to admit that these personalities can come and go in and out of the body, and that the subconscious mind can be used by one or more personalities or changed in the body.
My own study of multiple personality data resulted in my accepting the kahuna system of psychology as one better explaining complicated changes which take place.
In some cases which have been reported, a “baby” personality arrives and becomes dominant; in others, an adult personality comes and brings with it a complete change in health—even a paralyzed limb—and a definite memory of a past life in another body.
As psychologists and kahunas disagree, let us go on to see what proof we can find that a “personality” actually can leave a body and return to it.
Case 10: Did the Conscious and Subconscious Minds of General Lees Mother Leave the Body and Return?
This case was reported in the Hollywood Citizen, December 14, 1934, in the Strange As It May Seem daily feature. I take it that it can be authenticated by the originator of the feature. In any event, there are many more similar cases which are perfectly authenticated.
Fourteen months before the famous Confederate soldier, General Robert E. Lee, was born, his mother seemingly died. The doctors found that her heart had stopped beating and that she had turned stiff and cold. Thinking she was dead, funeral services were held and her body placed in the family vault. Fortunately in those parts at that time, bodies were not embalmed.
A week later the keeper of the cemetery went into the vault to remove withered floral offerings, and was startled to hear a moan from inside the casket. Hurriedly he opened the coffin. Inside it he found Mrs. Lee—again back in her body, alive. Apparently she had but then returned, for she had not smothered. She recovered and lived to give birth to the son who was later to become so famous.
In this and many similar cases we have proof of the cessation of all activities of the conscious mind in the body. Those of the subconscious all but ceased. To account for absence of decay in the body we are forced to conclude that there was a slight connection—perhaps by an ectoplasmic thread—between the body and the subconscious which must have been partly removed because of the death-like state of the body.
In this connection it is well to remember the yogis of India. These “holy men” use some form of autosuggestion to throw their bodies into a death-like state while the conscious mind goes away for long periods of time and the subconscious becomes dormant.
In the two cases we have just examined there are data which will later be of value, but in the next two we will come upon the data which finally showed me the significance of all data—pointed me to the secret of secrets of the kahunas.
Case 11: The Strangest Personality of All Appears
One of the early members of the Society for Psychic Research, and one who has taken part in many investigations, was a resident of Honolulu when I was there. He was Dr. Leapsley, a brilliantly educated man who was as trustworthy as he was wise. He made frequent journeys away from Honolulu, on this quest and that. Often he lectured to a group of friends to give them the findings of his latest investigation. I give this case from notes taken at one of the lectures.
Dr. Leapsley (Ph.D. and a biologist), in company with two medical doctors, was called in as a ranking expert in matters of multiple personality—the case to be investigated and treated being that of a young lady twenty-eight years old, the daughter of a prominent California attorney.
From the age of four, this young lady had alternated personalities regularly every four years. Only two personalities were involved and there was complete reciprocal amnesia.
The change of personalities which came with such regularity would be made in a moment of deep sleep. The secondary personality had been a “baby” when it first arrived, but had learned very rapidly and soon equaled the mental growth of the primary personality.
Through the years, each of the two personalities had continued its growth and education in its times of dominance, and each was able to learn with amazing rapidity anything the other had learned before it. Neither had the slightest memory of the experiences of the other. Upon returning to the body, neither personality could remember what it had done or where it had been while away. There was always surprise and momentary bewilderment at the time of returning to a body grown four years older and unfamiliarly dressed.
The primary personality was quiet and studious. It loved to sew and was shy and retiring. The secondary personality was an aggressive and unabashed tomboy. Their tastes and recreations were different.
One of the changes took place one afternoon while the mother was reading to her twelve-year-old daughter. They were in the sitting-room and the primary personality, whom we may call Miss First, was then dominant. The child was listening quietly and happily to the reading when she suddenly fell asleep. It was little Miss Second who awakened in the body a moment later.
Four years passed. Miss Second, now sixteen, was in the same room with the mother. The mother was reading another book, but this time not aloud, as Miss Second did not care for books. The body fell asleep, as it happened, in the same big chair in which it had sat four years before and on much the same kind of sunny afternoon.
Suddenly the eyes opened and Miss First looked wonderingly out. “Why did you stop reading, Mother?” she asked. She was unaware that four years had passed. She thought she had dropped off to sleep and that the reading of four years before had suddenly stopped. When told what had happened, she knew by remembering similar experiences what must have occurred. Also she could see that her body was larger and that it wore a dress much too colorful to suit her quiet taste.
So, every four years the girls changed places in the body. At the age of twenty-eight, or nearing it, each girl had lived fourteen years in the body. With each change, the wardrobe had to be made over to suit the personality which took over the body. Amusements were instantly changed, as well as diet, habits and occupational hobbies.
At last the parents decided to call in experts to see if there was not some way in which the secondary personality could be forced to leave the body to the primary. In this the parents were much perturbed as they had come to love both personalities as they would two different daughters, as indeed the girl seemed to have become to them.
The investigators took the young lady and explained to her that they were going to hypnotize her and endeavor either to cause both personalities to blend into one, or to get Miss Second to leave the body entirely to Miss First who now had possession, but feared the approach of the usual time for the change. Most eagerly she submitted to the treatment.
Under hypnosis the usual thing occurred. Both personalities appeared in turn and could be questioned. Each personality showed a complete memory of its own periods of life in the body, and each said that it knew all about the activities of the other—not by sharing those experiences but by “reading” what was in the memory of the other. They were not sure whether they stayed in the body or not, when latent, and they showed the usual lack of reasoning power. When the subconscious of Miss Second was told that she must go away and leave the body, the reply was vague and unsatisfactory. The order seemed to be accepted, but the doctors were convinced that nothing would come of such a command. So convinced were they that they also gave the usual hypnotic suggestion aimed at forcing a blending of the two personalities. (Note: As the subconscious alone can be hypnotized and made to act upon given suggestions, the blending must be between two subconscious entities. Such a blend would give the dominant conscious entity a double set of memories and so imitate a completely blended pair of personalities. It would seem quite impossible—if the kahunas are right in their postulations—that two conscious entities could blend without becoming instantly aware of their duality.)
After the first treatment it was found that no blending of personalities had resulted. The treatments were continued daily until the usual time of the change drew near.
It was hoped that with Miss First well aware of the fact that they desired her to stay in the body and blend consciously and subconsciously with Miss Second, something would be accomplished. However, when the change occurred, Miss First was not blended with Miss Second.
Hypnosis was applied again, after the new arrival had heard what was being done. Again the subconscious minds were questioned. Miss First remembered the instructions given her to try to blend with Miss Second, but said she seemed unable to do anything about it. When asked where she was, she answered only, “Here.”
Suggestion was next tried in an attempt to drive Miss Second out of the body. Then a startling thing happened. The body became as if dead. No response from either subconscious could be obtained. The doctors and parents became much alarmed. It was their desire to be rid of the invading personality, but now it seemed that they had driven it out but could not recall Miss First. While suggestion was being laboriously continued, a still more startling thing happened. The lips opened and an entirely unfamiliar personality spoke to them with such wisdom and authority that they were confounded.
This new personality spoke with a resounding voice which had in it an evasive but undeniable masculine quality. It was much like the gentle but very firm voice of some old man. The group about the girl’s body listened in amazement. Immediately the doctors realized that they were hearing still another personality addressing them. To add to their confusion, they realized that this new personality did not think as they thought. It seemed not to be logical, but superlogical. It seemed to know definitely and to the smallest detail what had gone before and what was being attempted. It asked no questions but began at once giving one statement after another concerning the girls and their lives. Each statement was precise and covered ground with which parents and doctors were familiar. As soon as the new personality had summed up the condition, it became silent.
The doctors asked who the speaker might be. The answer was another statement, and it was to the effect that this personality was one which had the two girls and the one body under its care and guardianship. In answer to more questions, more facts were stated—always without arguments such as a conscious mind might use, and always without explaining reasons. The group was told that the two girls were using one body for the purposes of living.
The doctors then contrived their best arguments. They told in full the way in which the change of personalities was ruining the life of the girl. She could not marry and could not live a normal life. To this the new personality answered with statements, the logic of which was apparent without argument or reasoning. Statement followed statement, each giving some definite purpose of living—the various purposes of growth and experience.
The learned doctors were helpless. Each statement was so profound and perfectly reasonable that they could find no logical argument to advance against it. They were like children before age-old wisdom. The type of thinking with which they were confronted was not human. The doctors would have been able to produce arguments in favor of the statements which were given them seemingly as eternal verities, but they could not have given arguments against them.
In a very short time they lapsed into silence. The personality which addressed them had left them helpless.
In desperation one of the doctors cried out that if Miss First was not allowed to have the body, they would keep it hypnotized indefinitely. To this the answer was another statement to the effect that no one would do anything to injure the body. Still another statement was then given—a final one which closed the interview forever. This statement was simple and to the point: “If you interfere with my work, I shall withdraw the girls and leave you the corpse.”
There was a long silence. Not one in the group doubted for an instant that the wise old personality would fulfill its threat. There had been a conviction of truth and serene power in every word. At last someone ventured to ask another question … but no answer carne. More time passed. Suggestion was made to release the body from hypnosis. Miss Second opened her eyes and smiled. Doctors and parents gave up. They had been confronted as if by God himself. They realized the futility of their efforts.
In the old man personality we find something quite different from either the subconscious or the conscious. The difference lies in its assumption of the duties assigned by the kahunas to the superconscious or “parental” spirit, also there is a decided difference in the mode of thought.
The superconscious uses, according to my conclusions, a form of thinking higher than either memory or reason, although it seems capable of remembering and reasoning. The only word in English to describe this thinking process is “realization”—a process of knowing things without going through the labor of remembering and applying logic to what is remembered and what is being observed.
The superconscious spirit, it will be recalled, uses a superior voltage of vital force. It is evident that it also has and uses a superior form of mentation. According to the lore of the kahunas, this form of mentation makes it possible for the superconscious to see into that part of the future which has become crystallized.
The best proof of the kahuna theory of the three selves and of their different forms of mentation, is found in checking multiple personality cases with obsessional insanity or schizophrenia. In the first, the patient remains sane because he or she is obsessed or controlled by a normal ghostly intruder who has his own subconscious and conscious selves, and who can, therefore, both remember and use reason. Only personality (conscious self) may change, or only memories may change (subconscious self), or both may change—and still there is sanity because a reasoning conscious self is always in control of the body regardless of changes. In the second case, insanity results from the changes because the conscious self is displaced and a new one does not take over the body. This leaves the resident subconscious in charge, and, lacking reason, it keeps the body alive but in a condition of lack-of-reason, or insanity. Or, an invading subconscious self may obsess or take over the body after the resident two selves have been driven out. Cases of insanity are common in which a foreign subconscious self obsesses a body. We know that it is foreign because it brings with it a foreign set of memories and convictions, even when illogical. The insane who believe themselves to be Napoleons are of this type, often not dangerous, often being able to remember from day to day, but never able to use the type of reason characteristic of the conscious self.
Later we will consider obsession in connection with a study of Huna healing methods. For the moment the important thing is to understand that the kahunas believed that there were three separate and independent spirits making the man, and that these were known to be SEPARATE AND INDEPENDENT BECAUSE THEY COULD BE SEPARATED BY ACCIDENT OR INTENTION.
Of only slightly less importance is the knowledge that the subconscious alone can remember, and that only the conscious can reason, while the superconscious has a still higher form of mentation which gives it exact knowledge of the past, the present and the part of the future that has been determined in advance.